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Cystectomy (Ovarian Cysts Removal)

  • What is a cystectomy?

    Cystectomy or ovarian cyst removal is a surgical procedure that is done to remove a cyst (fluid-filled sac) from your ovary or its surface.

    Women have 2 ovaries – each one about the size and shape of an almond, and they are located in the pelvis, one on either side of the uterus.

    The ovaries have 2 functions, which is to produce eggs (ova) and female hormones. Eggs (ova) that develop and mature in the ovaries are released during each monthly cycle in the childbearing years.

    Any ovarian follicle larger than 2cm is considered an ovarian cyst. There are often no signs or symptoms, but ovarian cysts can sometimes cause pain and bleeding. If the cyst is over 3 – 4cm, especially if persistent or symptomatic or look suspicious of abnormality, surgery may be needed.

    What is a cystectomy

    Causes and risk factors of ovarian cysts

    Ovarian cysts are very common and can affect women of any age. The causes of ovarian cysts vary depending on the type of cyst.

    • Functional ovarian cyst is the most common type of ovarian cyst. It may develop in women with menstrual periods. The two types of functional ovarian cysts are follicular and corpus luteum cysts.
      • When an egg is not released, a follicular cyst develops.
      • When the egg is released but the sac around the egg does not dissolve, a corpus luteum cyst develops.
    • Dermoid is a type of cyst that develops from ovarian cells and eggs. It is common in women of childbearing age.
    • Endometrioma is another type of ovarian cyst. It is also known as the chocolate cyst because of the dark color of the fluid inside it. This type of cyst usually develops when a woman has endometriosis.

    Ovarian cyst causes also include:

    • Pregnancy
    • Severe pelvic infections
    • Polycystic ovary syndrome
    • Non-cancerous growths
    • Cancer

    The risk of women developing an ovarian cyst may increase due to:

  • You may need surgery to confirm the diagnosis of an ovarian cyst, to remove a cyst that is causing symptoms, or rule out ovarian cancer and to preserve fertility and the ovary. Ovarian cystectomy is performed when there are indicators or suspicion of malignancy (cancer). This procedure is often performed as a laparoscopic (keyhole) surgery, but in some cases may be done by open surgery.

    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgery technique that makes use of small incisions in your lower abdomen. You will be given anesthesia prior the procedure. Through a small incision on your abdomen, a laparoscope – a thin tube with a camera on the end – will be inserted to help the doctors see the location of the cyst. They will use surgical instruments to remove the cyst.

    If the cyst is too large or too, an open surgery may be done instead of laparoscopic surgery In an open surgery, a larger abdominal incision is needed for doctor to see the cyst and surrounding tissues. Open surgery may also be needed if complications develop during a laparoscopic surgery.

    When to seek treatment for ovarian cysts?

    Most functional ovarian cysts go away on their own over time. If you have a functional cyst that is causing some symptoms, your doctor may use conservative management methods, such as over-the-counter medications, depending on your case.

    Your doctor may recommend an ovarian cystectomy if the cyst:

    • Doesn’t go away after several menstrual periods
    • Gets larger
    • Looks unusual on the sonogram
    • Causes pain
    • Cysts can grow, twist (called torsion and can be very painful), rupture (can have lots of blood in the abdomen) or shrink and disappear. Cysts can be benign or cancerous.

    Please consult your gynaecologist for the recommended treatment based on individual medical condition. Some patients who have undergone laparoscopic cyst removal may be discharged on the same day.

  • Preparing for a cystectomy

    Before the procedure, here are some of the things you need to expect and prepare for:

    • Expect to undergo several tests which may include blood tests, urine test, a physical exam, review of medications, ultrasound and CT scan.
    • Your doctor will discuss with you about your medications. If you’re currently taking some medications, you may be advised to stop up to 1 week before the procedure.
    • Since you will be under general anaesthesia, you will need a companion to take care of you after the procedure. Before the procedure, clear the schedule of whoever will accompany you in the hospital. It is also best to arrange a ride to and from the hospital to avoid inconvenience.
    • Do not eat or drink for at least 8 hours prior the surgery.
    • You will be given a general anaesthesia through an IV. This will keep you asleep throughout the cystectomy.

    After a cystectomy

    • Right after the procedure, you will need to stay in the hospital for 2 - 3 days to recover. You will be given medications and IV fluids.
    • Expect to experience abdominal discomfort and pain for 7 - 10 days. Medication will be given to relieve your pain.

    After you are discharged from the hospital, you will need 4 - 6 weeks to fully recover. At home, you need to keep in mind the following:

    • No strenuous exercise without clearance from your doctor.
    • No sexual activity for at least 2 weeks or without clearance from your doctor.
    • Undergo follow-up ultrasound tests that your doctor will require.

    Contact your doctor immediately if you experience the following at home during recovery:

    • Fever and chills
    • Redness or swelling of the incision site
    • Increasing pain in the incision site
    • Excessive bleeding or discharge form the incision site
    • Intense pain that can’t be managed by pain medications
    • Shortness of breath or chest pain
    • Nausea and/or vomiting that lasts for more than 2 days after being discharged from the hospital
    • Headaches, muscle pain or general ill feeling
    • Abdominal swelling
    • Constipation
    • Difficulty in urinating
    • Swelling or pain in the legs

    Risks/complications of a cystectomy

    Though complications resulting from it are rare, cystectomy is not totally risk-free. Your doctors will thoroughly study your history, medications and test results to avoid the possible complications of your ovarian cyst removal, which may include:

    • Bleeding
    • Blood clots
    • Cyst returns after removal
    • Infection
    • Infertility
    • Need for removal of one ovary or both ovaries
    • Damage to other organs

    If are still in your childbearing age and still plan to get pregnant in the future, your doctor will try to preserve your reproductive system by removing the cysts while maintaining both ovaries. If your condition will require one of the ovaries to be removed, it is still possible for the remaining ovary to release hormones and eggs, maintaining your fertility.

    However, some cases will require to remove both ovaries. Removal of both ovaries will trigger early menopause, which means you will no longer produce any eggs. If this is the case, you can discuss with your doctor the options you have to still get pregnant even without ovaries. Your doctor can refer you to specialists in assisted reproduction techniques.

  • Cystectomy is one of the medical procedures that you can avail at Parkway East Hospital.

    We provide comprehensive services for the diagnosis and management of women’s health conditions like ovarian cysts.

    Our team of doctors and medical staff with years of experience in doing ovarian cyst removal will ensure your safety and well-being. Our specialists are trained to carry out minimally invasive surgery technique that result to smaller incisions, reduced pain and scarring, and faster recovery. To complement their expertise, the medical team is equipped with technology and equipment for ovarian cystectomy.

    Our medical team will also assist you at each step of the process towards cystectomy recovery and management of your condition.

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  • Treatment for ovarian cysts can be expensive. For instance, cyst removal in Singapore cost can cost around $4,413.

    To help patients manage treatment costs and make informed decisions, Parkway East Hospital provides price transparency through its Price Guarantee Procedures. This price guarantee ensures you know the full costs of your procedure upfront without needing to worry about hidden costs.

    We also accept bill financing from both local and international private hospitalisation insurance and MediSave-approved insurance known as Integrated Shield Plans. If you have an Integrated Shield Plan, you may not have to incur any out-of-pocket expenses for your hospital stay.

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    There are 7 SpecialistsView All