27.JUL.2018 5 MIN READ | 5 MIN READ

Fatty liver disease may not be just an alcoholic’s burden.

If you’ve always considered fatty liver disease to be an alcoholic’s burden, you may want to think again. There are actually 2 types of fatty liver disease – alcohol-induced and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Around 30% of Asian adults suffer from one of the 2 forms, and a recent study done by SingHealth suggests that the rate in Singapore could be even higher.

Too much fat in the liver

Fatty liver vs healthy liver
If you have the disease, it means you have too much fat in your liver, which makes it less efficient at flushing out toxins from the body. More seriously, the disease can lead to liver scarring and eventually liver failure which is irreversible, so being in the know about how to lower your risk is valuable information indeed. While excess alcohol obviously plays a role in you falling foul of alcohol-induced fatty liver disease, other bad lifestyle choices increase your risk of developing NAFLD.

While the exact cause is not clear, NAFLD is often diagnosed in people who are obese, lead a sedentary lifestyle and those who consume a highly processed foods diet. Patients with NAFLD also tend to have high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol levels.

Change your diet for a healthier liver

The good news is you can adapt your diet to reduce your risks for both types of the disease. If you are overweight, you should target to lose at least 10% of your body weight by switching to a lower-calorie diet high in fresh vegetables, fruit and high-fibre plants, and by avoiding added sugar, salt, trans fat, refined carbohydrates and alcohol.

Easier said than done, we know, which is why we’ve put together a little cheat sheet for you on foods that can help you reach your weight goals and combat a fatty liver.

Greens

Fatty liver and greens
If you are yet to be convinced of the health benefits of doing what your mum always urged and eating your greens, here’s one more reason to munch down beans, spinach, brussel sprouts and more green vegetables: tests have shown that broccoli helps to prevent the build-up of fat in the liver. Eating any greens can help you lose weight, which in turn will help your liver. It gives you early satiety (filling of fullness) and is low in calories. Its fibre-rich content can help you lower your blood cholesterol levels.

Fish

Ironically, eating fatty fish helps combat a fatty liver. Salmon, sardines, tuna, and trout are all high in omega-3 fatty acids, which can help lower the levels of fat in the liver and can bring down inflammation. It is also a healthy alternative to meat as it gives you the opportunity to avoid consuming the fats and skins from meat or poultry.

Walnuts

If you are not a keen fish eater, you can still get your omega-3 fatty acids from walnuts. They are great to eat as a healthy snack, add to your stir fry for that extra texture or sprinkle over your favourite salad. Limit portion to a small handful per day.

Flaxseed oil

Fatty liver and flaxseed oil
When you need to control your weight and lower liver enzyme levels, you can’t go wrong by reducing the amount of fat/oil in your diet. When choosing fat/oil, opt for healthier unsaturated type. Flaxseed oil is an example of unsaturated oil. It is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids. You can dash over a salad, drizzled over bread or used for light frying adds a distinct flavour to all your dishes without you feeling guilty for the indulgence.

Avocado

Now we are starting to see a pattern. Here’s another delicious food choice that’s high in healthy fat, yet great for heart and liver health. Avocado appears to contain chemicals that might slow liver damage. Spread a small amount over toast with lemon juice and black pepper, add to a sandwich or wrap, or get really adventurous with the many avocado recipes you can find online.

Milk

Protein helps repair body tissue. Milk is a great source of protein, go for skimmed or fat-free version. Or why not splash it on a healthy oatmeal breakfast in the morning to set yourself up for the day?

Coffee

Fatty liver and coffee
Coffee often gets a bad rap, but the good news is that it isn’t always the enemy to health it’s sometimes made out to be. Coffee appears to lower the amount of abnormal liver enzymes in people at risk for liver diseases. Just make sure you do not add unnecessary creamer or sugar to increase the calories. Instead, using low fat milk, and artificial sweeteners if you cannot fight your sweet tooth.

Sunflower seeds

Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant that could protect the liver from damage, and sunflower seeds are a tasty little source of this important vitamin. Not only do they offer protection, but they add a wonderful texture when sprinkled over a salad, or to munch on as a healthy mid-day snack but in small amount.

Garlic

If you have fatty liver disease and are not a great fan of garlic, garlic powder supplements may be your answer to reducing fat levels, if experimental studies are to be believed. Nevertheless, garlic helps flavour your dishes, so you don’t end up using too much sauce, which are also excessive calories.

Green tea

Fatty liver and green tea
New studies seem to point to green tea reducing fat storage in the liver and improving liver function. While this research is in its early stages, there’s no harm in drinking green tea anyway for all the health benefits we know it has, including lowering cholesterol and helping you sleep – and a regular good night’s sleep does wonders for keeping your weight down too.

So there you have it – 10 great suggestions for adding liver-preserving ingredients into your diet – all readily available on the shelves of your local supermarket.

 

Article contributed by Louis Yap, dietitian at Mount Elizabeth Novena Hospital

References

Abdel-Hamid, M., Dawood, A. I. A., Hamad, E. M., Sitohy, M. Z. & Taha, S. H. (2011). Protective effect of whey proteins against nonalcoholic fatty liver in rats. Lipids in Health & Disease (10:57). Retrieved May 9, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096574

Antonypillai, C., Garcia, M. C., Gupta, V., Mah, X. & van der Poorten, D. (2015). Oily fish, coffee and walnuts: Dietary treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. World Journal of Gastroenterology (21:37). Retrieved May 9, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4588084

Askari, G., Feizi, A., Iraj, B., Paknahad, Z. & Soleimani, D. Effect of garlic powder consumption on body composition in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Advanced Biomedical Research 27 (5:2). Retrieved May 9, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26955623

Avocados Contain Potent Liver Protectants. (2000, December 20). Retrieved April 17, 2017, from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/12/001219074822.htm

Chen, Y.J., Walling, M. A. & Jeffery, E. H. (2016). Dietary Broccoli Lessens Development of Fatty Liver and Liver Cancer in Mice Given Diethylnitrosamine and Fed a Western or Control Diet. The Journal of Nutrition, 146 (3). Retrieved May 9, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26865652

Khalik, S. (2017, January 3). Cases of Fatty Liver Disease Rising in Singapore: Study. Retrieved April 17, 2017, from http://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/health/cases-of-fatty-liver-disease-rising-in-spore-study

Lu, W., Li, S., Li, J., Wang, J., Zhang, R., Zhou, Y., Yin, Q., Zheng, Y., Wang, F., Zia, Y., Chen, K., Liu, T. Lu, J., Zhou, Y. & Guo, C. (2016). Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis. Gastroenterology Research and Practice. Retrieved May 9, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5019889/

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. (n.d.). Retrieved April 17, 2017, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20354573

Omara-Otunnu, E. (2009, February 9). Nutritional Scientist Studies Impact of Green Tea on Disease. Retrieved April 17, 2017, from today.uconn.edu/2009/02/nutritional-scientist-studies-impact-of-green-tea-on-liver-disease/

27.JUL.2018
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Louis Yap Wei Ming
Dietitian
Mount Elizabeth Novena Hospital

Mr Yap is an accredited practising dietitian with the Dietitians Association of Australia.