19.SEP.2019 3 MIN READ | 3 MIN READ

Surviving a drowning doesn’t mean your child is back to normal. Post-drowning complications may arise and need to be treated as soon as possible. Learn how to treat these conditions and take the necessary steps to prevent them.

Why surviving a drowning doesn’t mean you are “out of the water”

Drowning is a leading cause of death in children of ages 1 – 14. However, rescued drowning victims risk developing 2 serious and life-threatening complications:

  • Post-immersion syndrome, also known as dry drowning, which occurs after your child takes in water through their nose or mouth. This triggers laryngospasm, a condition that causes the vocal cords to close over the windpipe to prevent water from entering the lungs. This involuntary reflex can continue even out of water, causing breathing difficulties in mild cases and may restrict oxygen to the lungs in severe cases.
  • Pulmonary oedema, or secondary drowning, which occurs when a child inhales water into their lungs, even a small amount of water (6 tablespoons of water for children). When the water enters your child’s lungs, it causes inflammation and irritation, making it difficult for your child to breathe. In an attempt to protect the lungs, your child’s body will send fluids into the lungs. This only worsens the condition and can lead to cardiac arrest or death. This condition can occur up to 3 days after the initial water incident.

It is important to monitor your child for up to 3 days following a near drowning incident and seek immediate medical care if any of the following warning signs appear:

  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty breathing or speaking
  • Excessive/persistent coughing
  • Fever
  • Flu-like symptoms
  • Foaming from the mouth
  • Headache
  • Irritability or mood swings
  • Irritability or unusual behaviour
  • Lethargy or sleepiness
  • Shortness of breath

What can I do to treat post-immersion syndrome?

Post-immersion syndrome
Though symptoms of post-immersion syndrome typically go away on their own with time, it is important to get your child checked by a doctor. Any problems that develop are usually treatable if your child receives prompt medical care within 24 hours.

In the rare case that your child’s symptoms do not go away, or if they worsen, take your child to the Accident and Emergency department (A&E) for emergency medical care. Once there, a doctor will order a chest x-ray and IV and your child will be admitted for observation. In severe cases, your child may need to use a breathing tube to assist in getting oxygen into the lungs.

What should I do if a child has drowned?

Emergency CPR
Begin by performing CPR on your child (if you’re trained), while getting someone else to call for an emergency ambulance. Once your child is in appropriate medical care, doctors will administer oxygen into your child’s lungs and use diuretics to remove fluid from the lungs.

Time is of the essence

It is vital that you seek emergency medical care as soon as possible. If you ignore the symptoms or wait just a little too long before seeking treatment, secondary drowning can be fatal.

Prevention

As with most medical complications, prevention is key. Encourage safe practices when in water by enforcing water rules for your child. Consider enrolling your child in swimming lessons at an early age to help them grow to be confident in and around water.

Some other key tips include:

  • Adhering to lifeguard’s safety warnings
  • Closing pool gates when the pool is not in use
  • Directly supervising children under the age of 4 in any amount of water
  • Swimming only in areas with a lifeguard on duty
  • Wearing life jackets when participating in water sports

 

Article reviewed by Dr David Chin, ENT surgeon at Parkway East Hospital

Reference

Drowning in Children. Retrieved 07/05/2019 from https://www.webmd.com/first-aid/drowning-in-children#1

What Is ‘Dry Drowning’? Retrieved 07/05/2019 from https://www.webmd.com/children/features/secondary-drowning-dry-drowning#1

What Is Dry Drowning? Retrieved 07/05/2019 from https://www.healthline.com/health/dry-drowning

How to Avoid ‘Dry Drowning’ and Other Swimming Dangers. Retrieved 07/05/2019 from https://www.healthline.com/health-news/dry-drowning-and-other-swimming-dangers#1

8 Benefits of Infant Swim Time. Retrieved 07/05/2019 from https://www.healthline.com/health/parenting/infant-swimming

Know the facts about ‘dry drowning’. Retrieved 07/05/2019 from https://newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/discussion/know-the-facts-about-dry-drowning/

Secondary drowning in children. Retrieved 07/05/2019 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1714707/?page=1

Signs of Dry Drowning in Toddlers. Retrieved 07/05/2019 from https://www.verywellfamily.com/signs-of-dry-drowning-in-toddlers-4143277

What is dry drowning and what are the symptoms? Retrieved 07/05/2019 from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323520.php

19.SEP.2019
img
Chin Chao-Wu David
ENT Specialist
Mount Elizabeth Hospital

Dr David Chin is an ENT surgeon at Mount Elizabeth Hospital and Parkway East Hospital, Singapore.