Endometriosis - Diagnosis & Treatment

How is endometriosis diagnosed?

Endometriosis can only be confirmed by surgery. However, there is a strong likelihood that endometriosis is present when:

  • Pelvic examination shows endometriotic spots
  • Ultrasound shows the presence of a endometriotic ovarian cyst
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows endometriosis lesions in the womb

It is now good practice to use a validated endometriosis questionaire to determine if painful menstruation and its associated symptoms are signs of endometriosis.

How is endometriosis treated?

The aim of endometriosis treatment is to achieve a good quality of life.

Depending on your age, symptoms and clinical findings, endometriosis can be treated in the following ways:

  • Non-medical treatment with regular exercise and healthy diet that contains low gluten and processed food
  • Over-the-counter pain relievers such as Panadol or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to manage pain during menstruation
  • Medication to reduce or suppress menstruation, such as oral contraceptives, progestins and gonadotrophin-releasing hormones
  • Surgery to remove large endometriotic ovarian cysts and/or endometrial lesions

Endometriosis vs endometrioma

Endometriosis is the condition where tissues lining the inside of the uterus grows outside of the uterus. Endometrioma (also known as 'chocolate cyst'), on the other hand, is a type of ovarian cyst filled with dark liquid, seen in some women with endometriosis.

Endometriosis and IVF

Endometriosis is one of the major causes of female infertility. Treatment options such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF) are available to manage infertility due to endometriosis. In IVF, the process involves the fertilisation of mature eggs with sperm inside a laboratory.

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